Eisenhower in for the purpose of forming and executing research and development projects to expand the frontiers of technology and science, and able to reach far beyond immediate military requirements,  the two relevant acts being the Supplemental Military Construction Authorization Air Force  Public Law and Department of Defense Directive Its creation was directly attributed to the launching of Sputnik and to U. Betts, who resigned in early He was succeeded by Jack Ruina who served until
Interchangeable gun parts, illustrated in the Edinburgh Encyclopaedia Even craft-based military technologies were not generally produced by military funding. Instead, craftsmen and inventors developed weapons and military tools independently and actively sought the interest of military patrons afterward.
In the decades leading up to the French RevolutionFrench artillery officers were often trained as engineers, and military leaders from this mathematical tradition attempted to transform the process of weapons manufacture from a craft-based enterprise to an organized and standardized system based on engineering principles and interchangeable parts pre-dating the work of Eli Whitney in the U.
Through the 19th century, science and technology grew closer together, particularly through electrical and acoustic inventions and the corresponding mathematical theories. The late 19th and early 20th centuries witnessed a trend toward military mechanization, with the advent of repeating rifles with smokeless powderlong-range artillery, high explosivesmachine gunsand mechanized transport along with telegraphic and later wireless battlefield communication.
Still, independent inventors, scientists and engineers were largely responsible for these drastic changes in military technology with the exception of the development of battleshipswhich could only have been created through organized large-scale effort.
Prior to the war, the American military ran a few small laboratories as well as the Bureau of Standardsbut independent inventors and industrial firms predominated. The powerful new technologies that led to trench warfarehowever, reversed the traditional advantage of fast-moving offensive tactics; fortified positions supported by machine guns and artillery resulted in high attrition but strategic stalemate.
Militaries turned to scientists and engineers for even newer technologies, but the introduction of tanks and aircraft had only a marginal impact; the use of poison gas made a tremendous psychological impact, but decisively favored neither side.
The war ultimately turned on maintaining adequate supplies of materials, a problem also addressed by military-funded science—and, through the international chemical industry, closely related to the advent of chemical warfare.
The Germans introduced gas as a weapon in part because naval blockades limited their supply of nitrate for explosives, while the massive German dye industry could easily produce chlorine and organic chemicals in large amounts. Industrial capacity was completely mobilized for war, and Fritz Haber and other industrial scientists were eager to contribute to the German cause; soon they were closely integrated into the military hierarchy as they tested the most effective ways of producing and delivering weaponized chemicals.
Though the initial impetus for gas warfare came from outside the military, further developments in chemical weapon technology might be considered military-funded, considering the blurring of lines between industry and nation in Germany.
Gas research escalated on both sides, with chlorine followed by phosgenea variety of tear gasesand mustard gas. A wide array of research was conducted on the physiological effects of other gases, such and hydrogen cyanidearsenic compounds, and a host of complex organic chemicals.
The British built from scratch what became an expansive research facility at Porton Downwhich remains a significant military research institution into the 21st century.
Unlike many earlier military-funded scientific ventures, the research at Porton Down did not stop when the war ended or an immediate goal was achieved.
In fact, every effort was made to create an attractive research environment for top scientists, and chemical weapons development continued apace—though in secret—through the interwar years and into World War II. German military-backed gas warfare research did not resume until the Nazi era, following the discovery of tabunthe first nerve agent, through industrial insecticide research.
In the United States, the established tradition of engineering was explicitly competing with the rising discipline of physics for World War I military largess.
A host of inventors, led by Thomas Edison and his newly created Naval Consulting Boardcranked out thousands of inventions to solve military problems and aid the war effort, while academic scientists worked through the National Research Council NRC led by Robert Millikan.
Submarine detection was the most important problem that both the physicists and inventors hoped to solve, as German U-boats were decimating the crucial naval supply lines from the U.
The discipline of modern meteorology, however, was largely built from military funding. During World War I, the French civilian meteorological infrastructure was largely absorbed into the military.
The introduction of military aircraft during the war as well as the role of wind and weather in the success or failure of gas attacks meant meteorological advice was in high demand.
The French army among others created its own supplementary meteorological service as well, retraining scientists from other fields to staff it. At war's end, the military continued to control French meteorology, sending weathermen to French colonial interests and integrating weather service with the growing air corps; most of the early-twentieth century growth in European meteorology was the direct result of military funding.
World War II[ edit ] See also: As with other total warsit is difficult to draw a line between military funding and more spontaneous military-scientific collaboration during World War II.The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military..
Originally known as the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the agency was created in February by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik 1 .
Introduction. The following tables were generated from the Vietnam Conflict Extract Data File of the Defense Casualty Analysis System (DCAS) Extract Files, which is current as of April 29, The Vietnam Conflict Extract Data File of the Defense Casualty Analysis System (DCAS) Extract Files contains records of 58, U.S.
military fatal casualties of the Vietnam War. About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world.
It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Social and Behavioral Research Resources ___return to top. behavior modeling and analysis at Cyberspace and Info-Ops Study Center theory page.
Toward an Operational Definition of Cross-Cultural Competence from Interview Data (), by Ross, at the Institute of Simulation and Training, University of Central Florida, for the Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute (DEOMI), Spring The weekly magazine, websites, research and databases provide a powerful and all-encompassing industry presence.
We help you make informed business . If the military, in cooperation with the University of Alaska Fairbanks, can show that this new ground-based "Star Wars" technology is sound, they both win.