Aftermath of the Battle of GettysburgAmerican Civil WarJames Fearona scholar of civil wars at Stanford Universitydefines a civil war as "a violent conflict within a country fought by organized groups that aim to take power at the center or in a region, or to change government policies". Some political scientists define a civil war as having more than casualties,  while others further specify that at least must come from each side. This includes civil wars; however, no specific definition of civil war is provided in the text of the Conventions. Tanks in the streets of Addis Ababa after rebels seized the capital during the Ethiopian Civil War Nevertheless, the International Committee of the Red Cross has sought to provide some clarification through its commentaries on the Geneva Conventionsnoting that the Conventions are "so general, so vague, that many of the delegations feared that it might be taken to cover any act committed by force of arms".
Visit Website Did you know? During Reconstruction, the Republican Party in the South represented a coalition of blacks who made up the overwhelming majority of Republican voters in the region along with "carpetbaggers" and "scalawags," as white Republicans from the North and South, respectively, were known.
Emancipation changed the stakes of the Civil War, ensuring that a Union victory would mean large-scale social revolution in the South.
It was still very unclear, however, what form this revolution would take. Over the next several years, Lincoln considered ideas about how to welcome the devastated South back into the Union, but as the war drew to a close in early he still had no clear plan. In a speech delivered on April 11, while referring to plans for Reconstruction in LouisianaLincoln proposed that some blacks—including free blacks and those who had enlisted in the military—deserved the right to vote.
He was assassinated three days later, however, and it would fall to his successor to put plans for Reconstruction in place. Apart from being required to uphold the abolition of slavery in compliance with the 13th Amendment to the Constitutionswear loyalty to the Union and pay off war debt, southern state governments were given free reign to rebuild themselves.
These repressive codes enraged many in the North, including numerous members of Congress, which refused to seat congressmen and senators elected from the southern states.
The first bill extended the life of the bureau, originally established as a temporary organization charged with assisting refugees and freed slaves, while the second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens who were to enjoy equality before the law.
After Johnson vetoed the bills—causing a permanent rupture in his relationship with Congress that would culminate in his impeachment in —the Civil Rights Act became the first major bill to become law over presidential veto.
African-American participation in southern public life after would be by far the most radical development of Reconstruction, which was essentially a large-scale experiment in interracial democracy unlike that of any other society following the abolition of slavery.
Blacks won election to southern state governments and even to the U.
Congress during this period. Reconstruction Comes to an End Afteran increasing number of southern whites turned to violence in response to the revolutionary changes of Radical Reconstruction. The Ku Klux Klan and other white supremacist organizations targeted local Republican leaders, white and black, and other African Americans who challenged white authority.
Though federal legislation passed during the administration of President Ulysses S. Grant in took aim at the Klan and others who attempted to interfere with black suffrage and other political rights, white supremacy gradually reasserted its hold on the South after the early s as support for Reconstruction waned.
Racism was still a potent force in both South and North, and Republicans became more conservative and less egalitarian as the decade continued.
In —after an economic depression plunged much of the South into poverty—the Democratic Party won control of the House of Representatives for the first time since the Civil War. When Democrats waged a campaign of violence to take control of Mississippi inGrant refused to send federal troops, marking the end of federal support for Reconstruction-era state governments in the South.
In the contested presidential election that year, Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes reached a compromise with Democrats in Congress: In exchange for certification of his election, he acknowledged Democratic control of the entire South.
A century later, the legacy of Reconstruction would be revived during the civil rights movement of the s, as African Americans fought for the political, economic and social equality that had long been denied them.Wood also attributes participation in the civil war to the value that insurgents assigned to changing diplomatic censure, a reduction in international aid or the introduction of economic sanction, or, as in the case of while distant regional powers such as the United States could declare the interventionist Monroe Doctrine of for.
AP US History. Flashcards to study for the AP exam.
STUDY. Which of the following best describes the situation of freedmen in the decade following the Civil War? a) Each was given 40 acres of land and a mule by the Union government popular support for the war declined in the United States d) the South Vietnamese government was.
UW TACOMA DIVISION OF SOCIAL AND HISTORICAL STDY HISTORY (TACOMA) Detailed course offerings (Time Schedule) are available for.
Autumn Quarter ; Winter Quarter ; T HIST Introduction to History Methods (5) I&S Introduces students to historians' methods for researching and writing, including Chicago style, with a focus on formulating, researching, and writing a history .
Introduction The majority of United States citizens have known about the main reason for the Civil War; however, what truly led up to a band of brothers firing upon one another has not been explained to most United States citizens.
Publisher of academic books and electronic media publishing for general interest and in a wide variety of fields. Apr 14, · Watch video · The Civil War in the United States began in , after decades of simmering tensions between northern and southern states .