We briefly describe several of these proposals in the box below. These include the following:
Hydraulic fracturing proppants and List of additives for hydraulic fracturing The main purposes of fracturing fluid are to extend fractures, add lubrication, change gel strength, and to carry proppant into the formation.
High-viscosity fracturing tends to cause large dominant fractures, while high-rate slickwater fracturing causes small spread-out micro-fractures. Types of proppant include silica sandresin-coated sand, bauxiteand man-made ceramics.
The choice of proppant depends on the type of permeability or grain strength needed. In some formations, where the pressure is great enough to crush grains of natural silica sand, higher-strength proppants such as bauxite or ceramics may be used.
The most commonly used proppant is silica sand, though proppants of uniform size and shape, such as a ceramic proppant, are believed to be more effective. One cubic meter of water is The fluid can be gel, foam, or slickwater-based.
Fluid choices are tradeoffs: Important material properties of the fluid include viscositypHvarious rheological factorsand others. Water is mixed with sand and chemicals to create hydraulic facturing fluid.
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Approximately 40, gallons of chemicals are used per fracturing. Acids — hydrochloric acid or acetic acid is used in the pre-fracturing stage for cleaning the perforations and initiating fissure in the near-wellbore rock.
Isopropanol —used to winterize the chemicals to ensure it doesn't freeze. These gels are cellulose derivative carboxymethyl cellulosehydroxyethyl cellulosecarboxymethyl hydroxyethyl cellulosehydroxypropyl cellulosehydroxyethyl methyl celluloseguar or its derivatives hydroxypropyl guarcarboxymethyl hydroxypropyl guarmixed with other chemicals.
These gels have higher viscosity at pH 9 onwards and are used to carry proppant. After the fracturing job, the pH is reduced to 3—4 so that the cross-links are broken, and the gel is less viscous and can be pumped out. Organometallic-crosslinked fluids — zirconiumchromiumantimonytitanium salts — are known to crosslink guar-based gels.
The crosslinking mechanism is not reversible, so once the proppant is pumped down along with cross-linked gel, the fracturing part is done.
The gels are broken down with appropriate breakers. Aluminium phosphate and ester oils are slurried to form cross-linked gel. These are one of the first known gelling systems.
For slickwater fluids the use of sweeps is common. Sweeps are temporary reductions in the proppant concentration, which help ensure that the well is not overwhelmed with proppant.
An enzyme acts as a catalyst for breaking down the gel. Sometimes pH modifiers are used to break down the crosslink at the end of a hydraulic fracturing job, since many require a pH buffer system to stay viscous.
Some but not all injected fluid is recovered. This fluid is managed by several methods, including underground injection control, treatment, discharge, recycling, and temporary storage in pits or containers.
New technology is continually developing to better handle waste water and improve re-usability. This data along with knowledge of the underground geology can be used to model information such as length, width and conductivity of a propped fracture.
Using the fiber optics, temperatures can be measured every foot along the well — even while the wells are being fracked and pumped. By monitoring the temperature of the well, engineers can determine how much hydraulic fracturing fluid different parts of the well use as well as how much natural gas or oil they collect, during hydraulic fracturing operation and when the well is producing.
Microseismic activity is measured by placing an array of geophones in a nearby wellbore. By mapping the location of any small seismic events associated with the growing fracture, the approximate geometry of the fracture is inferred.
Tiltmeter arrays deployed on the surface or down a well provide another technology for monitoring strain  Microseismic mapping is very similar geophysically to seismology.
In earthquake seismology, seismometers scattered on or near the surface of the earth record S-waves and P-waves that are released during an earthquake event. Hydraulic fracturing, an increase in formation stress proportional to the net fracturing pressure, as well as an increase in pore pressure due to leakoff.
The increases in pore water pressure and in formation stress combine and affect weaknesses near the hydraulic fracture, like natural fractures, joints, and bedding planes.
Accuracy of microseismic event mapping is dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio and the distribution of sensors. Accuracy of events located by seismic inversion is improved by sensors placed in multiple azimuths from the monitored borehole.
In a downhole array location, accuracy of events is improved by being close to the monitored borehole high signal-to-noise ratio. Monitoring of microseismic events induced by reservoir[ clarification needed ] stimulation has become a key aspect in evaluation of hydraulic fractures, and their optimization.
The main goal of hydraulic fracture monitoring is to completely characterize the induced fracture structure, and distribution of conductivity within a formation.Describe the environmental psychological implications of commercial and residential design, including purpose and considerations.
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