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Posted on September 7, by Linda Talley Citation: Pundits, bloggers, and the news media have commented on the meaning of nonverbal communication for political figures, and business leaders around the world use nonverbal communication in their speeches to various audiences.
Little research exists on whether leaders are aware of their gestures or how their nonverbal communication is perceived by their viewers, as either positive or negative.
Research has focused on the verbal message of a leader as a single channel of communication Shriberg,but there is less research on whether verbal channels of communication convey the real meaning and acceptance of the speech or whether the nonverbal channel has more influence.
Two lines of research note that some nonverbal channels of communication are spontaneous while others are intentional messages used in a strategic manner Buck and VanLear, By becoming aware of specific hand gestures, and changing which hand gestures a leader uses, leaders might have a better chance of acceptance of their verbal message.
Studying specific hand gestures will help to determine whether leaders can make an emotional connection based on the meaning these hand gestures create. Past researchers have categorized gestures as iconic, emblems, beats, etc.
Richmond and McCroskey posited a corollary to this work by noting that the more nonverbal immediacy a person uses, the more other people will evaluate in a positive manner and prefer to be around him or her.
Although this work was based on teacher and student assessments, the same theory should hold for a leader and follower evaluation as both studies display a power imbalance. The less immediacy a leader uses, the exact opposite will be true.
They found that students, who were able to view the video, were better able to determine the verbal meaning of the story than those who only heard the audio. Beattie and Shovelton showed a significant main effect for the gestures, but showed no significance between the gesture and condition. Therefore, some iconic gestures convey more meaning than others.
This was the first notation of a possible difference between nonverbal hand gestures until Maricchiolo et al. This study attempts to take this research one step further by operationalizing hand gestures into positive, defensive, and neutral gesture groups.
Analysis will examine that there is a difference among gesture groups and that the difference between the gestures will be measured by immediacy as perceived by the audience. Prior to this study, no attempt has been made to delineate positive and defensive hand gestures based on empirical study.
There is anecdotal evidence for the support of different hand gestures Pease,but no empirical data to support these claims.
In order to study this, three videos were viewed by participants to test the following hypotheses: The independent variable, hand gestures, consists of three levels: Each one minute video contained either positive hand gestures, defensive hand gestures, or no hand gestures.
It is hypothesized that the following hand gestures are positive. Positive hand gestures are operationally defined as the use of three hand gestures: Community hands—The position of the hands show the palm face up or vertical to the ground.
Humility hands—Hands are clasped in front of the person at waist level. Steepling hands—Hands form a steeple with fingertips touching.
It is hypothesized that the following hand gestures are defensive.The Church of Satan is a religious organization dedicated to Satanism as codified in The Satanic leslutinsduphoenix.com Church of Satan was established at the Black House in San Francisco, California, on Walpurgisnacht, April 30, , by Anton Szandor LaVey, who was the Church's High Priest until his death in In , Peter H.
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JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. This compilation is dedicated to the memory of our nameless forebears, who were the inventors of the pens and inks, paper and incunabula, glyphs and alphabets. "Example Of Kinesics" Essays and Research Papers Example Of Kinesics Kinesics between Males and Females In communication, it is important to consider not only the verbal context of the interaction between two people or among a group.