To get wrestling into your blood, into your mind and sometimes, even under your skin.
The nation's land mass, which includes the two major islands of Sicily and Sardinia and numerous smaller ones, measuressquare milessquare kilometers —almost exactly double the size of the state of Florida. Italy's population in stood at With the exception of the broad north Italian Plain at the foot of the Alps, the peninsula is crosscut through much of its length by the Apennine mountain chain.
The obstacles created by the highlands, valleys, and gorges found in the mountain regions fostered strong cultural and linguistic differences. More historically verified is the fact that the Romans engaged in territorial expansion and conquest of neighboring lands, devising effective colonization policies that ultimately sustained a widespread realm.
The Pax Romana began to crumble, however, by the end of the first century A. The sack of Rome by the Visigoths in A. With its political integration shattered, the country remained fragmented until the late nineteenth century. Italy was, in the view of many Europeans, a "mere geographic expression.
Prior to this, the peninsula consisted of often mutually antagonistic kingdoms, duchies, city-states, and principalities. Some of these regions had a history of autonomous rule, while others came under the periodic control of foreign powers as a result of recurrent wars and shifting political alliances.
Over the centuries, therefore, powerful regional loyalties emerged, and persisted well after unification. Although local cultural variations remained notable, the most significant internal distinctions have been those stemming from the contrast between a relatively prosperous, cosmopolitan, urban North and a socially backward, economically depressed, agricultural South.
Southern Italy Mezzogiornothe source of more than 75 percent of immigration to the United States, was an impoverished region possessing a highly stratified, virtually feudal society.
The bulk of the population consisted of artisans artigianipetty landowners or sharecroppers contadiniand farm laborers giornalieriall of whom eked out meager existences. For reasons of security and health, residents typically clustered in hill towns situated away from farm land.
Each day required long walks to family plots, adding to the toil that framed daily lives. Families typically worked as collective units to ensure survival.
Angelo Pellegrini, who became a successful immigrant, remembered his sharecropping family: Education beyond the third grade was out of the question At eight or nine years of age, if not sooner, the peasant child is old enough to bend his neck to the yoke and fix his eyes upon the soil in which he must grub for bread.
I did not know it then, but I know it now, that is a cruel, man-made destiny from which there is yet no immediate hope of escape. The impact of unification on the South was disastrous. The new constitution heavily favored the North, especially in its tax policies, industrial subsidies, and land programs.
The hard-pressed peasantry shouldered an increased share of national expenses, while attempting to compete in markets dominated more and more by outside capitalist intrusions. These burdens only exacerbated existing problems of poor soil, absentee landlords, inadequate investment, disease, and high rates of illiteracy.
With cruel irony, as livelihoods became increasingly precarious, population totals soared.
Italy jumped from 25 million residents in to 33 million in to more than 35 million indespite the massive migration already underway. Commencing in the regions of Calabria, Campania, Apulia, and Basilicata, and spreading after to Sicily, Italian emigration became a torrent of humanity.
Frommore than 4. Despite these massive numbers, it should be noted that roughly two-thirds of Italian migration went elsewhere, especially to Europe and South America.A Goals Essay connects past, present and future i.e.
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