The image belongs to what was once known as the age of the reindeer.
Download this page in PDF format Cholera first arrived at a time of significant political change that affected the way it was understood by various groups within Britain.
The poor, the ill-defined middle-classes comprising diverse groups of people from small business owners and clerks to owners of large factories and many professionals like lawyers and doctorsand the traditional land-owning elite were all in the process of redefining their access to political power through the gradual extension of the right to vote.
The cholera epidemics, poorly understood by medical experts of the time, were understood by these groups in different ways as government and the medical profession experimented with responses. Cholera provides a useful Serious dramatic deficiency essay to see how an externally generated stressor like an epidemic intersects with other cultural and historical forces, giving insight not only into medical but also political and cultural history.
Between andfour cholera epidemics struck Great Britain, as part of pandemic outbreaks that affected the entire globe. Inbefore the first British epidemic, there had been a smaller epidemic that spread in Europe but did not cross the channel.
The epidemic was the first one to enter Britain—and also spread to the Americas and Australia—and wreaked panic as well as high death rates where it struck. The second epidemic was global and caused high death rates in Britain.
By the mids, Britain was more ready when cholera again entered the islands but still suffered considerable mortality. The last and least, but still murderous, British epidemic was in After that, in the s and 90s, cholera did sweep across the European continent again but did not cross the channel in epidemic force.
In the s, the disease was still unfamiliar in most of the world beyond parts of the Indian subcontinent. Terrified patients had never seen such symptoms before, and doctors were helpless to do anything but try remedies that they thought had worked for other diseases.
These remedies, from the relatively merciful giving of opiates to more aggressive approaches such as bleeding or burning the skin, were largely worthless, as were most theories of how the disease was transmitted including, but not limited to, bad weather, foul smells, electro-magnetism and divine vengeance.
We now believe cholera to be a waterborne disease caused by a comma-shaped bacillus called vibrio cholerae, which is transmitted between humans via the fecal-oral route. It usually enters the body through contaminated water or food and then multiplies in the intestines.
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|Pamela K. Gilbert, “On Cholera in Nineteenth-Century England” | BRANCH||For instance, the people who routinely get themselves screened for being a carrier for Tay-Sachs disease are a demographic who have an extremely strong historical reason to be worried about Nazi-style dysgenics, and yet, eugenics is exactly what they are doing whenever a couple of them, on learning that they are both carriers, decide to refrain from having children together, or break off their relationship and seek other, non-carrier partners. The Nazis thought they were practising eugenics.|
Although easily treatable today in developed areas with abundant clean water and medical care, cholera remains an important epidemic disease in parts of Africa, India, and Latin America and it has recently taken thousands of lives in Haiti.
Untreated, it can kill within a few days through rapid dehydration, caused by copious, uncontrollable diarrhoea. As people in the s did not understand what caused the disease nor, indeed, know about germs which were not understood until much later in the late-nineteenth centurycaregivers did not even know to wash their hands after tending the sick.
In an era without running water in most homes, and with many people living in small spaces, it was easy for contamination to spread. And in industrial early nineteenth-century cities with rapidly growing populations and no sewer systems, most people disposed of their waste in cesspits or in the streets.
From there, it eventually ended up in rivers that provided drinking water, spreading it far beyond its origin. Because dehydration was so rapid, apparently healthy people became weak very quickly.
Their appearance was frightening: Patients first screamed and thrashed as their muscles spasmed, then lay exhausted and unresponsive, and soon died—sometimes within the first 24 hours.
A young Venetian woman, aged 23, depicted before and after contracting cholera. Courtesy of Wellcome Library A rigorous quarantine might well have saved the island nation from the dramatic mortality seen on the continent, and quarantine was initially tried in lateto be imposed upon ships coming from the Baltic.
Besides, many people thought that probably the cholera was a figment of the imagination anyway or, at least, an exaggerated threat. Despite the sporadically enforced quarantine, cholera entered Britain in the port town of Sunderland in fall of William Sproat, a 60 year old shipyard worker, succumbed within three days after calling in the doctor, followed by his family, who had nursed him.
From there, it quickly spread, as has been extensively documented see especially Durey and Morris for Britain; for France, Kudlick, and Delaporte; and for Germany, R.
It left behind documented deaths in Sunderland alone, and probably many more listed under other causes or not recorded, and swept away many thousands more throughout the Kingdom before it ebbed in late summer.
When cholera was first discussed by the British public, as it marched across the continent in and 32, Britons were already preoccupied with a big political topic: Parliamentary and voting Reform. Reform had been a perennial focus over the last several years, but in the form that finally became law it had been hotly debated from Junewhen dissolute King George IV died.
After long discussion, it was passed in Commons and then defeated in the House of Lords in Rioting ensued, and a revised Bill was brought forward subsequently that year. Through the spring ofthe Lords dithered and the mood of the country grew increasingly tense.
When it finally passed, on 7 Juneit gave more representation to large cities that had gained population as a result of the Industrial Revolution and eliminated representation for areas where the population had diminished to the point that a Member of Parliament was often elected by only a handful of landowners.
Separate reform bills were passed in the same year for Scotland and Ireland.The Collins dictionary describes drama as a serious play for theatre, television or radio.
Introduction ============ What is drama. The Collins dictionary describes drama as a serious play for theatre, television or radio.
Get The Wall Street Journal’s Opinion columnists, editorials, op-eds, letters to the editor, and book and arts reviews. Nutrient Deficiencies And Excesses Assi Essay.
routine of most people suffering from this condition.
Less serious side effects include digestive problems, nausea, loss of appetite, bloating, gas, a bitter or unpleasant taste in the mouth, sleep disturbances, depression, excessive excitement, irritability and .
There is surely a deficiency of harmoniousness throughout the drama based on the confused conversations, deficiency of continuity and the changeless non- sensical verbalism, compounded by the unexpected, e.g.
Ruth going a prostitute and Sam dropping dead etc. Comedy: Comedy, type of drama or other art form the chief object of which, according to modern notions, is to amuse. It is contrasted on the one hand with tragedy and on the other with farce, burlesque, and other forms of humorous amusement.
The classic conception of comedy. Say's Law and Supply Side Economics. It should be known that at the beginning of a dynasty, taxation yields a large revenue from small assessments.